venerdì 29 dicembre 2006

Il concetto filosofico di verità



Nella storia della filosofia, il concetto di verità è stato ordito in almeno due diverse prospettive: l'una antologica (studio della verità in quanto tale) e l'altra strettamente connessa al discorso umano.
Nella prospettiva antologica, la verità è considerata come una qualità intrinseca dell'essere umano, concetto che si ritrova sia nel pensiero greco di Platone, dove la verità era intesa come una proprietà dell'essere, a cui l'uomo aspira ad elevarsi; sia nel pensiero cristiano di Sant'Agostino e San Tommaso, dove la verità appartiene alla sfera ultraterrena e tende ad identificarsi con il verbo divino.
Nella prospettiva della verità connessa al discorso umano, il concetto di verità è stato elaborato sotto la categoria della definizione e del criterio di verità. La ricerca di un criterio di verità riguarda il chiarimento di cosa significa essere vero. E, in proposito, la definizione più antica si trova in Platone, per il quale vero è il discorso "che dice gli enti come sono", falso è il discorso" che dice come non sono". A questa definizione farà riferimento San Tommaso con la concezione della verità come "adaequatio rei et intellectus", cioè la corrispondenza tra realtà e pensiero o discorso.
Questa teoria della verità come corrispondenza è presente, in epoca moderna, in Leibiniz, in Wolff e Kant. Leibiniz distingueva tra giudizi la cui verità dipende dai fatti dell'esperienza e giudizi la cui verità è basata esclusivamente sui principi logici della ragione. La verità derivante dai fatti dell'esperienza esprime delle verità contingenti (accidentali), potendo essere negate senza contraddizione; mentre, la verità basata esclusivamente sui principi logici della ragione esprime delle verità necessarie, essendo inconcepibile la loro negazione in quanto implicante contraddizione.

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Fin quando filosofeggiamo tutte le prospettive della verità sono belle da leggere, impossibili da applicare. Pertanto, secondo me, la verità più vera è quella che deriva dall'esperienza che esprimono verità contingenti basate sui principi logici della ragione.

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